For Malawi, farmers, especially chili farmers, curly leaf disease is no longer a new thing for them. The disease is characterized by symptoms of leaves becoming wrinkled and curly and this bundle can reduce plant productivity because this disease can stop the vegetative growth of plants.
Although this disease can infect plants such as watermelons and melons, curly leaf disease is more often found in chili plantations. Therefore we would like to review how to deal with curly leaves in chili plants in full for those of you who may still be beginners or feel always failed to overcome the curly leaf disease in your plants.
Before discussing further, let us first identify what is curly leaf disease. Curly leaf disease is a plant disease whose cause can be due to pests or viruses that infect plant tissue so that plant cells develop abnormally and have an effect on the structure of leaves and shoots of plants.
The initial symptoms of an attack occur on the young leaves of the shoots and then spread to other parts of the plant. Vegetative growth of plants (shoots, leaves, and roots) can be inhibited or even stopped. Chili plants affected by curly attacks certainly cannot produce fruit optimally due to the release of flowers and chilies based on branching buds.
Because curly leaf disease has two causes with almost similar symptoms, we need to sort them out based on the symptoms that appear.
Pest Attack (Plant Pest Organism) Insect Type
Insects that can cause frizz are types of lice and aphids. Both of these insects suck plant fluids through young leaves and shoots. Glands from these ticks will enter plant tissue and affect the development of plant cells so that the infected gland will wrinkle or curl.
Characteristics are the leaves and buds are curled but the color of the leaves remains green or becomes dark green. If the leaf color appears yellow,
Mosaic Virus Infection
Mosaic viruses cannot directly enter plant tissues without being carried by vectors. And this virus vector is aphids and aphids. Symptoms of the attack are the leaves become shrunken and shrink with yellow spots all over the leaf (colored creating).
At first glance, it will seem the same as the attack of the leafy leaf where the leaves are yellow, but the difference is that the case of the leafy leaf does not cause curly leaves or wrinkled buds.
Besides being transmitted by insects, the mosaic virus can also be carried by chili seeds from plants infected with mosaics. These typical curls tend to be difficult to cure. But of course, some steps can be taken to get the best results.
Preventing Curly Disease
So that curly leaf disease does not attack your plants you should take some preventative steps. Prevention of curly-leaf attacks can only be done by controlling the vector ie aphids (thrips) and aphids as well as preventing the spread of the mosaic virus from seed. It is proven that chili plants in greenhouses can be free from curly leaf diseases.
For those of you who plant in an open area, then you should routinely spray contact insecticide made from active abamectin at least 18 EC or Dimetoat once every 5-7 days after the plant enters the age of 20 HST. Also, use a sticky mixture to maintain the durability of the insecticide attached to the leaves.
In addition to contact insecticides, also use systemic insecticides every 10 days for longer prevention. You can use an insecticide like Besvidor or Interprid which has an active ingredient of Imadikoplorid at least 25 WP.
Use a silver mulch plastic mat because it will reflect sunlight during the day. The reflection of the light will frighten pests thrips and aphids hiding under the leaves. Insecticide spraying is done in the afternoon when the reflection of light is not so strong.
To prevent from the mosaic virus, then buy F1 chili seeds (Hybrids) that do have resistance to the virus. Also, you can use plant antivirals with active ingredients Hydroxybenzoate which is anti-inflammatory and antioxidant for plants. This is only used once when the plant is 20 HST as a precaution and is used again if an attack has occurred.
How to Overcome Curly Leaf Disease in Chillies
Well, then what if the plant has been exposed to curling disease? Calm we can love mengtinya. Follow the steps below to deal with curly leaves on chilies:
Curly Because of OPT
For this curly, if you find some plants that begin to be affected by leaf curling you can immediately use an insecticide made from active Abamectin with levels of 20 EC gradually up to 72 EC. Make daily spraying with an insecticide made from Dimetoat. So, for example, today you use Abamectin, then the next day use Dimetoat. Done a full week in the afternoon.
After that spray Liquid Organic Fertilizer containing Nitrogen + ZPT Auxin on the leaves of the curly plants intensively 2 days in the afternoon until the leaves bloom again. Why evening? Because during the day the stomata of the plant still close to reduce evaporation and only open when the afternoon.
So nutrition can be absorbed perfectly. Besides nitrogen is also easily evaporated by the sun’s heat. Giving nitrogen in curly leaves is proven to stimulate the development of leaves becoming greener and blooming.
Spray fertilizer until the leaves recover and the spray pattern returns to normal as before.
Curly Due to Mosaic Virus
This one is indeed more difficult to overcome because in cases of severe mosaic attacks the plant can die burnt. Yellow patches, of course, will also reduce plant chlorophyll so that it interferes with photosynthesis (similar to the case of Bulai plants).
The initial step is to isolate infected plants so they do not become vectors for other healthy plants. You can also discard the leaves that have been hit by a curly mosaic.
Abamectin spraying continues to kill vectors of insects. Then use the hydroxybenzoic antiviral which will treat the plant from the inside of the tissue. Some farmers who use the organic system will use garlic juice to treat diseased plants. However, the effect is not instant.
The most important thing is giving leaf fertilizer containing nitrogen and ZPT Auxin and Clorophil Stimulant regularly.
Besides that, you also use ZPT Cytokinin which can inhibit plant cell aging.
If the plant survives and makes its antibodies, the plant can recover and will not be infected again forever.
This often occurs in cayenne pepper plants that are longer. Therefore for Red Chili (TM), you have to intensively care for plants affected by virus mosaics due to shorter plant life. Read also about.
Never mix contact type insecticide with other types of contact because it can reduce its effectiveness
For systemic insecticides, use the appropriate dose and interval because it can poison the plant itself if overdosed
Use complete personal protective equipment and read the label before using insecticide.
Curly leaf disease in chili is very detrimental to farmers. This disease is more common in the dry season where aphids can multiply rapidly and rarely in the rainy season due to high nitrogen levels in the air.
We hope that after reading the article about how to deal with curly leaves on this chili plant, you will be able to overcome the attack of curly-leaf disease on the chilies you plant.