Talking about how to grow chili, it will be very interesting. How not, chili is one of the agricultural products with high economic value. Every day chili is needed for cooking in the kitchen or for various industrial products.
Seeing the opportunities available, it seems that chili farming is quite tempting, huh? But growing chili is not easy. The risk of failure is also quite large.
Edit, don’t be afraid! With the development of agricultural science and the experience of farmers over the years, the risk of failure of chili cultivation can be reduced.
table of contents
- Types of Chillies in Indonesia
- Growing Conditions That Support How to Grow Red Chili
- Cultivation and Method of Fertilizing Chili
- Pests And Diseases That Disrupt How To Grow Curly Chili
- Business Analysis of How to Grow Hot Pepper
So, ready to start how to plant chilies with a low risk of failure?
Types of Chillies in Indonesia
Well, we will discuss how to plant chilies that are good and have a low risk of failure by first recognizing the types of chilies. This is very important so that we can choose well the types of chilies to be planted. Of course, land conditions and market demand will determine the selection.
Here we will discuss 3 of the 12 types of chili that have been recognized. These three types are indeed the most widely cultivated. What are they? This is it:
It turns out that the chili which tastes spicy is still divided into chili peppers, chili peppers, and white or whiny chilies. Jemprit chili taste very spicy, with a small, short shape and even around.
For click chili, the fruit is bigger and fatter than chili pepper. But it’s not as spicy as a hot pepper. While the white chili is slim and long, the longest among the three types of cayenne pepper. When it cooks it is pink, not as red as hot peppers or crackles.
In the market, we will find big red chilies and curly chilies. Both types of chili are indeed included as red chilies. For big red chili, the shape is long, round with a tip that tends to be blunt. The taste is not too spicy, even a little sweetness. Many Javanese people use this chili for cooking.
We see curly red chili. This chili is elongated, curly and even curly with a pointed tip. It tastes more spicy with a higher number of seeds. Sumatra is the main marketing area for these chilies.
Many people call bell peppers with peppers. The shape of the paprika is round like a bell. This chili isn’t spicy, it’s even rather sweet. Thick skin and flesh with a small number of seeds. Paprika is not so much consumed in Indonesia.
Expensive seeds and difficult maintenance make them rarely marketed. Even if there is, the price is still very expensive. But if we look further, we can see a great opportunity from the cultivation of paprika.
Well, three types of chili are widely cultivated for consumption. There is one more type of chili that is widely cultivated, but the purpose is not for consumption.
Yes, ornamental chili. This chili is also edible. However, people are not accustomed to eating it and only plant it as decoration. Even so, the demand for ornamental chili is pretty good.
Growing Conditions That Support How to Grow Red Chili
How to grow red chilies and other types such as easy. All that’s left is to sow the old seeds, chilies can grow right away. It is fruitful. But, as farmers, we certainly expect high productivity.
If the yield is lower than the costs, it means we are failing to cultivate chilies. Now, to minimize these failures, we should plant chili following the conditions of growth. That way, chilies will grow and bear fruit to the maximum.
The conditions for growth are:
Chili plants can flourish in Indonesia because these plants do require a lot of sunlight. Indonesia which is exposed to the sun all year round will make chilies flourish and bear fruit. Especially when the nursery and early growth, do not let the sunlight is lacking.
If it is not enough, it is guaranteed that the number of branches will be small. As a result, chilies that should appear in each branch will be reduced in number. So, try at the beginning of the growth of this plant, enough sunlight so that a lot of branches and fruit is dense.
How about the rainfall? Angry chilies, curly chilies, and paprika don’t really like high rainfall. Only cayenne can survive. High rainfall can cause flowers and young fruits to fall out. As a result, crop failure can occur.
Therefore, to reduce the risk of failure, chilies should be planted at the end of the rainy season. It can also plant it in a greenhouse or plastic house. If you can harvest during the rainy season, the profits will double because the price of chili at that time is very expensive.
Temperature and Humidity
The environmental temperature turned out to greatly affect the productivity of chili plants. Plant chilies in an area with a temperature of 18 to 300C. If it is too low or too high, growth, development, and fertilization will be hampered.
Another thing that can reduce chili productivity is too low humidity. This humidity should be in the moderate to high range. Evaporation that is too high also makes chili productivity decline. Likewise with strong winds that can abort the flowers and fruit.
How big is the role of geographical location on chili productivity? Chili can grow in both low and highland areas. Although the height of the place will affect the temperature and humidity of the air, but we can still work around this.
For example, if chili is planted in a lowland where the temperature is hot and the evaporation rate is high, then the humidity of the air must be adjusted so that it is also high by watering 2 to 3 times a day. That is, we can try to keep the risk of failure remains low.
Chili plants are not spoiled plants and require special soil structure. Chili can grow in various types of soil, such as clay or sandy. But for maximum yield and low risk of failure, chilies should be planted in soil rich in nutrients or organics.
The most suitable acidity is 5 to 7.5. If the soil is too acidic, applying TSP fertilizer is enough to increase the acidity of the soil. The best soil conditions for chili cultivation are moist soil, but not flooded by water.
After knowing the growing conditions of chili plants, we should be able to start planning the cultivation to be carried out. Are the selected environmental conditions suitable or not with the needs of plants? If it is suitable, then planting chilies will certainly be easy.
If not, we don’t give up easily, because there are still many solutions. Greenhouse or plastic house can be the best chili growing solution. Although the initial capital is quite large, the income obtained can also multiply, because chilies can produce to the maximum.
Cultivation and Method of Fertilizing Chillies
How to grow chili is certainly the most important thing that influences the success or failure of this business. How to fertilize chilies must also be considered and carried out properly so that chilies can grow well and the results are abundant.
Don’t plant chilies, okay? But apply the method of planting that has proven successful.
The ways to plant include:
When should soil preparation be done? Land management should be done at the same time as the nursery. That way, when the soil is finished, chili seeds can be directly moved from the nursery to the planting place.
Groundwork begins with hoeing or plowing. Then, make beds with two lanes or one planting lane. After that, we can start making planting holes. The size of the hole is 20x20x20 cm with a distance between 60×70 cm.
Provision of Basic Fertilizers
Basic fertilizer is applied after the hole is made. Manure or compost as much as 1 to 2 kg is put into each hole. There are various kinds of manure, but fertilizer from chicken manure is the best.
Also, it gives a mixture of TSP, urea and KCl fertilizer in a ratio of 1: 1: 1. The amount is about 15 grams for each hole. Granule-shaped nemasida of 1-2 teaspoons for each hole can also be given. After everything has entered the hole, stir and leave for 2 weeks.
Do not rush to plant chili seeds in the garden, but do it first. Seeding can be done in polybags or seedbeds. Soil media that can be used is a mixture of soil with manure as much as 5: 1. Also add 250 gr TSP, 500 gr urea and 250 gr KCl for every 1 m3 mixture of soil and manure.
This nursery must be sheltered in the east-west direction. That way the rain and strong sunlight will not damage the seeds.
The next way to plant chili is to transfer seeds. What seeds can be moved to the garden where the planting is? Ie seeds that are 30-40 days old and are strong enough to be transferred. When transplanting, try to keep the roots from being damaged. After the seedlings enter the hole, fill it with soil and press so it doesn’t collapse.
This transfer should be done in the afternoon when the sun is no longer hot. Also, do watering so the plants do not wilt. When planting it, we can give another 5 grams of TSP, urea and KCl fertilizer.
After the plants grow well, then on the 30th day is the time for us to re-fertilize. Fertilizers given are still the same, namely TSP, urea and KCl. Each fertilizer is 10-15 gr. Not only on the 30th day, on the 60th, 90th and 120th days, the same fertilization must be done.
That way, chili plants can flourish and the risk of failure is low. Wait a minute, there is still another fertilizer to give. Namely micro leaf fertilizer is given every 10 days.
It is not only fertilizer that makes chilies flourish, but also water. Enough water is needed by this plant at the beginning of its growth. Chili production will be low if there is a lack of water. Therefore, chili plants need to be watered regularly, especially during the dry season.
But we also know that chili doesn’t like excessive water. Chilli roots can rot. Good drainage is a way to prevent the failure of chili cultivation due to excess water. Make the gutters as drainage ditches by the beds.
Harvest and Post Harvest
Here it is the long awaited, harvest time. Age 90-100 days is the time for chilies to start harvesting. This harvest will continue for 6 months for red chilies, curly chilies, and peppers. For cayenne pepper, the harvest can take up to 2 years.
Harvest every 2 or 3 times a week. A good post-harvest will prevent chili from spoilage. The trick is to immediately remove the chilies that have been harvested from the container. Then put it in the open and airy.
Good and correct cultivation methods can reduce the risk of failure of chili cultivation. How to fertilize chilies must also be considered seriously. Perform fertilization with the right amount and time.
Chili plants that are given proper fertilizer can grow and bear fruit optimally and have better resistance to disease.
Pests And Diseases That Disrupt How To Grow Curly Chili
How to cultivate the right chili was not enough to eliminate the risk of crop failure. Yes, pests and diseases must also be controlled so that the chilies are not damaged. Curly viruses can make chili not bear fruit at all.
Isn’t it terrible that the chili plants that we have cared for so hard turned out to be unable to bear fruit? Therefore, these pests and diseases must be controlled by us.
The types of pests and diseases of chili and how to control it are as follows:
The first pest we need to know is Thrips tobacco. Not only attacking chilies, these insects also attack onions, walnuts, spinach, tobacco, potatoes, and other plants.
Thrips can cause chilies to develop curly viruses. If you want to control it, then we can weed and adjust the spacing so that it is not too tight.
Planting chilies during the change of the rainy season to the dry season will also be beneficial because at that time the thrips population was low. Insecticides can also be sprayed to treat them.
Unlucky chili plants attacked by aphids. The plant can become curly, then wither and die of running out of liquid. The spread of aphids is very fast because these insects have wings. Immediately prune the leaves that begin to appear attacked by fleas.
If needed, we can use insecticide with active ingredients dimethoate or endosulfan to be sprayed.
But if prevention is preferred, then we must adjust the spacing and conduct balanced fertilization. Thus, this pest will not be able to spread and attack other plants quickly.
Don’t think thrips and aphids are the most dangerous pests for chilies. Because there are still red mites that can damage leaves, young tuna, and plant shoots. The parts will grow abnormally, change color, crack and curl.
Actually, in the rainy season, this mite population will decline. But if you want to control it, we can spray acarisida or other insecticides that are as contact poisons.
Now it’s time to discuss the diseases of chilies. The first disease is leaf spot caused by fungi. Watch for leaves that begin to appear to have small patches. Over time the spots will enlarge, and the chili leaves will fall.
If that means the chili plant has been attacked by leaf spot plants. As a result of this disease is the decline in fruit productivity or even the death of plants. Immediately prune the affected leaves, then burn. Spray a fungicide to save other plants.
The fungus again causes diseases that can be very detrimental. The disease is rotten fruit. Attacked chilies will fall. Not only in trees, this disease also attacks chilies that have been harvested, causing the quality of chili to decrease. It will be difficult for us to sell the chilies.
To prevent this, there are several things you can do. Conduct good planting methods, adjust the distance of chili trees and good water management can prevent this disease. Destruction of the affected fruit and spraying of fungicides also needs to be done.
Mosaic Virus and Curly Virus
Do you still remember who caused the chili plant to get a curly virus? Yes, thrips are the cause. It turns out that not only thrips, aphids, but snails and mites can also spread curly viruses and mosaic viruses.
If healthy plants touch diseased plants, even this virus can be transmitted. Therefore, chili plants must be strong enough so that they do not get sick easily.
The trick, give fertilizer TSP and other fertilizers in a balanced way. That way the plant will be difficult to contract the virus, and can even recover from this disease.
Prevention is better than cure. This is not only true for us humans but also for chilies. So, before our crops are attacked by pests and diseases, take precautions first.
How to prevent this is to maintain the health and strength of plants with the right fertilizer. A good way to grow curly chilies must also be to clean weeds around plants because these weeds can be a means of transmission of pests and diseases that can be very detrimental.
Business Analysis of How to Grow Hot Pepper
Now we will see the results of chili cultivation based on mathematical calculations. Calculation or analysis of this business is indeed very necessary before we start planting chilies. That way, all expenses will be planned and directed. We can estimate the loss or profit and then overcome it.
The analysis that we will discuss on this occasion is a business analysis of how to grow cayenne pepper. For other types of chilies certainly will not be much different. The calculation is performed on an area of 1 ha with a planting period of 6 months.
What we will calculate first is the cost of renting land and making a hut of Rp. 10,600,000. Then the cost of land preparation and nursery is Rp. 29,600,000. The fee includes the purchase of fertilizer.
For planting and maintenance, the cost required is Rp. 33,376,200. So that the total cost needed is Rp. 73,576,200.
Then we will calculate income based on yields estimated at 12,240 kg. If the price of cayenne pepper at the farm level is Rp. 10,000, then our net income is Rp. 122,400,000.
So, we can now find out the net profit from the cayenne we produce which is Rp. 48, 823,800 for 6 months. That is, every month our profit is Rp. 8,137,300.
Remember, this is only the 6th month. Even cayenne pepper can be harvested for up to 2 years. So, our income in the 7th and next month will be higher.
Indeed, by reducing the risk of failure as low as possible, the results of how to plant chilies that are good and right will be enjoyed by us.